# Presenting Data

## Presenting Data

There are various ways to present data. Each has its own advantages and is ideal for specific types
of data such as numerical and categorical data.
### Tables

We can easily collect, organise and present data in a simple and easy to
understand way by putting it into a table. This may also help later on when you
want to construct a graph from the data as the points will be easier to plot. We can
use tables for almost any type of data.
### Line Graphs

Probably the simplest way to present numerical data is to use a line graph. In these
graphs both the dependent and independent variable is numerical. A line shows the
effect of the independent variable and the dependent variable. Some cases in
which we may use line graphs are:
•
The effect of temperature on the speed of a chemical reaction
•
The effect that the slope of a road has on driving speed
•
Temperature at different times of day
### Bar Charts

You can present data in a very simple format by using a bar chart. Bar charts are
mainly used for categorical data. This type of data has non-numerical values as the
independent variable and (mostly) numerical values as the dependent variable.
Some examples of cases in which we may use bar charts are:
•
Favourite colours of students in a school
•
Colour of cars passing by a building
•
The frequency of the 10 most common names in a town
### Pie Charts

Pie charts are used to present data where you want to show a percentage of
something. They are relatively easy to construct. However, we do not tend to use
them very frequently in mathematics as there are not a lot of cases in which they
are an appropriate way to present data. Some instances in which we can use them
are:
•
Percentage of energy that originates from different energy sources
•
Percentage of inhabitants of different nationalities in a town
•
Percentage of planes from different airlines departing at an airport
### Cumulative Frequency Graphs

A cumulative frequency graph is a continuous total of frequency. It can be used to easily
identify the frequencies below, above or in-between points. Cumulative frequency graphs
are appropriate in the following scenarios:
•
Grades of students
•
Size of trees in a forest
•
Distances run at a running competition
### Histograms

Histograms show the frequency as well as the distribution or spread of the data.
They are quite similar to bar charts but more complex and mathematical. Here are
some cases in which they can be used:
•
Ages of people in a town
•
Heights of basketball players
•
Lengths of cars
### Box and Whiskers

Box an whiskers can be used to represent the distribution of data. The graphically
show the min. and max. values along with the quartiles and the median. They can
be used for almost any type of data.

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## Learn How To Present Data

To learn how to present data, choose one of the topics above that interests you. We suggest that you start off with tables as it is the most
basic skills that you should master. Please share this page if you like it or found it helpful!

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Chapter 22.0: Learning Outcomes
Students will be introduced to the different ways to present data!

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